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Psychedelic-Assisted Therapy: Opportunities and Ethical Considerations

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[First published September 14, 2021 in the newsletter of the Santa Clara Valley Chapter of the California Association for Marriage and Family Therapists]

by Kylea Taylor, LMFT

Clients who are having transformative psychedelic experiences are already coming into our practices! I have a very small, very full practice these days, but several people each month now approach me expressing the same need. These people often share wistfully, “I tried to talk to my long-time therapist, but [she, he, they] didn’t understand, and just didn’t seem to feel comfortable with my psychedelic experience.” These people reluctantly started to look elsewhere for a therapist with whom they could talk about some of the most profound experiences they have ever had. They wanted to find someone who would understand what they mean when words fail them in trying to describe their numinous visions and psychospiritual breakthroughs. They are looking for a therapist who will be able to help them integrate these transcendent experiences into everyday life.

In this article I want to suggest how we as therapists can show up for this paradigm shift in culture and our profession. It is my wish that we all become aware that there are ethical differences in working with clients who are experiencing psychedelics and be willing to learn the territory of extra-ordinary states of consciousness (E-OSC).

Why are these potential clients taking psychedelic medicine? Some of the callers with whom I talked have become interested in taking psychedelics because they read Michael Pollan’s book, How to change your mind: What the new science of psychedelics teaches us about consciousness, dying, addiction, depression and transcendence. Pollan, a best-selling author and journalist, tracked down therapists in the psychedelic sub-culture, and for the first time in his life, took various psychedelic medicines himself under their care. He wrote so well about his journeys and what they meant to him that his book has intrigued and inspired readers to try psychedelics for self-evolution.

Other people who contact me are seeking help for their intractable PTSD and anxiety. They have read with new hope the stories carried recently and frequently in the New York Times and other big newspapers and magazines. This news touts the amazing success of the research done with MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for PTSD by MAPS (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies, that has its home office in Santa Cruz).

Phase II trials provided MDMA-assisted psychotherapy to a research group, as well as therapy without MDMA to a control group. Research subjects showed a “significantly greater reduction in the severity of symptoms” (MAPS) two months after treatment. Amazingly, study outcomes showed: “28 of 42 (67%) of the participants in the MDMA group no longer met the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, compared with 12 of 37 (32%) of those in the placebo group after three sessions” (MAPS). Phase III trials for MDMA-assisted psychotherapy were fast-tracked in 2017, because preliminary clinical evidence indicated [the treatment] may demonstrate substantial improvement over existing therapies for PTSD (MAPS).

The legal picture is changing for psychedelics because of MAPS’ successful research. MDMA is on track to be federally approved for psychedelic-assisted therapy. The State of California (and other states as well) meanwhile has decriminalized the use of certain hallucinogenic substances (MAPS). Many more seekers are finding their way to people who organize ceremonial experiences with psilocybin, ayahuasca or other plant medicines. Ketamine, a legal drug, is also being prescribed in off-label use by some doctors and psychiatrists for depression and other diagnoses.

What are the professional opportunities for therapists with psychedelic medicine? A cultural paradigm shift is underway and our customers—our clients—will at the very least want us, as their service professionals, to be able to discuss the treatment options for therapeutic psychedelic experiences and to listen with understanding when they describe their psychedelic sessions.

There will be professional openings in this field. There are therapists already working in research studies and in ketamine clinics. When the medicines are federally approved, there will be jobs in clinics for treatment sessions in which clients are administered psychedelic medicine, and there also will be opportunities to provide post-session integration therapy through alliances with doctors and clinics and via web referrals.

What are extra-ordinary states of consciousness (E-OSC)? Certain therapeutic methods invoke these normal, but expanded states of consciousness. Holotropic Breathwork®, psychedelics, drumming or other ceremony, EMDR or Brainspotting, or hypnosis are examples of these methods, each using different catalysts like the breath, plant or other psychedelic medicine, rhythmic entrainment, eye focus or eye movement, or hypnotic induction, respectively. Other profound life experiences bring E-OSC too, for example deep grief, reliving trauma, or a surprising, spontaneous mystical experience, perhaps in nature, in prayer, while listening to music, or during meditation.

These E-OSCs are sometimes mild and trance-like. But often, as in most therapeutic psychedelic sessions, they are very profound healing journeys, in which the client has less access to reference points in ordinary reality, may experience time distortion, may find it difficult to function or speak, and may express intense emotion spontaneously with sound or movement.

Ethical right relationship requires more and different attention by the therapist who is working with psychedelic-assisted therapy or integration therapy. It has been almost three decades now that I have been thinking and writing about ethics. From the beginning I have considered especially the ethics of working with clients who are having experiences in extra-ordinary states of consciousness.

In the 1980s and 1990s, I was studying with, then working with Stanislav Grof, M.D., a founder of transpersonal psychology, and Tav Sparks as a trainer in the Grof Transpersonal Training. We were training people to be practitioners of Holotropic Breathwork®, a method using the breath to enter an E-OSC. In that same time period, I was also studying at San Jose State for my M.S. in Marriage and Family Therapy and taking a traditional ethics education class there. This dual perspective enabled me to identify two main differences in ethics for professionals working with therapeutic E-OSCs: 1) the need to pay more attention to traditional ethical guidelines, and 2) the need to know and address different ethical issues involved in working with E-OSC.

The reasons for more attention to traditional ethics guidelines (like the well-articulated ones in the CAMFT Code of Ethics) are that in E-OSC there is often greater vulnerability, greater suggestibility, and greater transference and countertransference. The client may experience faster change in healing from transcendent states. Faster change means that there will be more issues of safety, navigating relationships, and dealing with cognitive dissonance. “Psychedelic therapy heightens the importance of trust, trustworthiness, and safety.” (Carlin, & Scheld, 2020).

E-OSC also require attention to different issues that normally do not arise in talk therapy. A thorough description of E-OSC differences is part of InnerEthics™, an inner approach to ethics that complements, with self-reflection and awareness tools, the outer guidance of laws and codes. The foundation of InnerEthics™, described in my book, The Ethics of Caring: Finding Right Relationship with Clients (2017) is self-compassion. Self-compassion supports our willingness to learn about our own motivations and to develop a heightened attunement that can discern the client’s best interests, even when we are navigating the dimensions of right relationship in extra-ordinary states of consciousness.

What are some of the different ethical issues involved in working with E-OSC? Adequate training above and beyond what is provided to most psychotherapy students is essential for doing psychedelic psychotherapy. The training that is needed is both didactic and experiential. E-OSC journeys include categories of experience that are outside the usual scope of talk therapy. Such training includes cognitive learning about the expanded cartography of the psyche mapped by Stanislav Grof (1985) , in which he describes the categories of biographical, perinatal, and transpersonal experiences often occurring in E-OSC.

Experiential training (actually taking the medicines or doing Holotropic Breathwork® in a supervised session) is essential for a therapist to learn this cartography of the psyche through inner experience. It is so important to know firsthand the compelling power of the inner healing intelligence, to be surprised in the release of our own traumas and biases, and ultimately to learn implicit trust in the unfolding process in E-OSC. Grof (1985) wrote: “If [professionals ] have not experienced deep letting go….their own fear, lack of personal knowledge, and insufficient faith in the process may communicate itself, preventing [the client] from going fully into the experience to complete it. This can happen even if the [professional] does nothing overtly to interfere with the [client’s] process” (Grof, 1985).

Rene Harvey (2021) writes about the importance of training in “trigger management” for therapists doing psychedelic psychotherapy. Her chapter in the wonderful book Psychedelics & Psychotherapy goes into detail about self-management, debriefing, formal supervision, follow up attention to any material arising, and the importance of attention to relational aspects like transference, countertransference and projective identification.

It is crucial to be able to self-compassionately identify our own cultural programming and do self-management to control our impulses, so as not to let them inadvertently interfere with a client’s trajectory in a psychedelic session (Taylor, 2017). Female clients, for example, need to be trusted to find their way in psychedelic sessions to expand beyond the limitations women learn culturally: “The psychedelic is the transformational ticket out of a limiting pattern for the female client…. She may feel free to experience her authentic self, understand how roles have been defined for her. She may be ready to confront self-doubt. She may be able to see beyond externally and internally imposed restrictions and find confidence in her unique gifts.” (Taylor, 2019).

Monnica T. Williams, Sara Reed, and Jamilah George (2020), three black women therapists, describe their own experiences taking MDMA as research subjects, and then offer a list of competencies needed by psychedelic therapists to work ethically and skillfully with people of color: “(1) to be able to identify normal cultural variations in the expression of psychopathology and personality, (2) to recognize trauma related to racism and other forms of oppression, (3) develop good rapport with people of color by appropriately expressing caring, empathy, and respect, (4) comfortably engage in discussions of racial topics, and (5) identify and examine personal biases as they relate to ethnic and racial differences” (p. 133)

In summary, in order to work ethically with clients directly in psychedelic sessions or to do post-session integration therapy, it is important for therapists to follow the admonition of Socrates to “know thyself” by continuing to do deep self-reflection and to learn, from their personal experiences in E-OSC, the inner territory of the psyche and the character of the particular medicine or method being used. In 1980 Grof wrote, after supervising hundreds of LSD sessions: “Because of the unique nature of the psychedelic state it is impossible to reach a real understanding of its quality and dimensions unless one directly experiences it” (Grof, 1985).

Kylea Taylor, M.S., LMFT is a California licensed Marriage and Family Therapist (MFC #34901). Kylea has been thinking, writing, and teaching about ethics for almost three decades. She has developed and teaches InnerEthics™, an inner, self-compassionate approach to ethical self-reflection and right relationship with clients. She served for two years on the Board of the Santa Cruz chapter of CAMFT. In her part-time therapy practice she specializes in the integration into everyday life of profound experiences, spiritual emergence, and transpersonal phenomena. She also provides ethics consultations to professionals using the InnerEthics™ relational approach. Kylea started studying with Stanislav Grof, M.D. in 1984, is a certified Holotropic Breathwork™ practitioner, and was a senior trainer in the Grof Transpersonal Training from 1993-2000. She is the author of The Ethics of Caring: Finding Right Relationship with Clients, The Breathwork Experience, Considering Holotropic Breathwork™, and is editor of Exploring Holotropic Breathwork™. In the 1990s she assisted Stanislav Grof and Jack Kornfield in “Insight & Opening”, weeklong programs that combined Holotropic Breathwork® with Vipassana meditation. Kylea has presented her own programs in the USA, Europe, and online. Kylea is also President of SoulCollage Inc. https://kyleataylor.com/ https://innerethics.com/

References

Carlin, S., & Scheld, S. (2020). Developing ethical guidelines in psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy. MAPS Bulletin Annual Report, 30(3), pp. 27-34.
Grof, S. (1980). LSD psychotherapy. Nashville, TN: Hunter House.
Grof, S. (1985). Beyond the brain: Birth, death, and transcendence in psychedelic psychotherapy. Albany, NY: SUNY.
Pollan, M. (2018). How to change your mind: What the new science of psychedelics teaches us about consciousness, dying, addiction, depression and transcendence. New York, NY: Penguin Press.
Mitchell, J. M., Bogenschutz, M., Lilienstein, A., & al. (2021). MDMA-assisted therapy for severe PTSD: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study. Nature Medicine, 27, 1025-1033. doi:10.1038/s41591-021-01336-3
Nuwer, R. (2021). A psychedelic drug passes a big test for PTSD treatment. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2021/05/03/health/mdma-approval.html
Taylor, K. (2017). The ethics of caring: Finding right relationship with clients. Santa Cruz, CA: Hanford Mead.
Taylor, K. (2019). Ethical considerations for psychedelic work with women. MAPS Bulletin Annual Report, 29(2), pp. 28-31.
Williams, M. T., Reed, S., & George, J. (2020). Culture and psychedelic psychotherapy: Ethnic and racial themes from three Black women therapists. Journal of Psychedelic Studies, 4(3), 125-138.

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article

Ethical Considerations for Psychedelic Work with Women

Written by Kylea Taylor, M.S., LMFT
MAPS (Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies) Bulletin
Spring 2019: Vol. 29, No. 1

Relationship itself is at the heart of healing…
And ethics and integrity are at the heart of any healing relationship.
(Taylor, 2017, p. 36)

The basis of professional ethics is to act always in the best interests of the client. Yet in our work using psychedelics, what is best for the client is not always simple to discern, especially when we have unconscious assumptions or motivations. Unexamined attitudes from mainstream culture may influence our interactions with women clients.

Why do we want to do psychedelic work with clients?

Our very first self-reflection must be on our reasons for choosing the professional role of psychedelic facilitator. Do we want to be this client’s true well-wisher? Even if the answer is yes, most people in a helping role also have more shadowed motivations. Examples of these are: wanting to be seen as the healer, the guide through mystical new territories, or the catalyst for a client’s transformation. These desires are not in themselves wrong or bad, unless we don’t recognize them. If we are not conscious of these motivations, we can be driven by them unconsciously, to a client’s detriment. Once we are aware of the complexity of our motivations, we are one step closer to getting clear about what truly serves our client, and choosing to refrain from what does not.

There are always differences between the culture, gender, and life experience of the client and those of the professional. (I am using the word “professional” here to mean “responsible party.”) There are subtleties to ethical right relationship that inevitably involve the present fears, desires, and longings of both professional and client. This is particularly true when the client is female (and/or belongs to any other group that has experienced discrimination.)

Often when clients experience profound, extraordinary states of consciousness, their unconscious tendencies are amplified. When professionals sit in the field of a client taking psychedelic medicine, they may experience this same amplification of their own fears, desires, and longings. It is not uncommon for everyone in the room to have surprising emotions and content emerge from their unconscious.

Sometimes these take the form of “healing impulses.” These are usually inclinations to help in some way, perhaps to try to address some old wounding. Healing impulses are usually well-motivated in that the impulse has identified a real need, either in oneself or the client. However, they also can be projections of our own needs, even if they seem initially, to be for the client. Even if a proposed intervention is examined and feels right, we could still be unclear about the best timing for it. All unconsidered interventions have greater potential for ethical missteps.

When we want to intervene in a client’s process, we can ask ourselves, “Who is this for?” (Taylor, 2017, p.176). We can look more closely at the healing impulse we may have mistakenly determined is on behalf of the client. We can ask ourselves whether this intervention, at this time, with this client, is really helpful. Awareness about our own motivations is important. “In almost all cases where we…have caused harm to those in our professional charge, it was because we just didn’t know better or because we weren’t able to look at ourselves” (p. 35).

Michael Pollan (2018) chose a wonderful title for his book How to Change Your Mind, because a precipitating factor for what I call a “personal paradigm shift” is a deep, non-ordinary state of consciousness. As Pollan demonstrated with accounts of his personal psychedelic experiments, we really do have the opportunity to change our minds and shift our personal paradigms by using methods like breathwork and psychedelic medicines.

How do we bring meta-awareness to cultural paradigms?

How can the fish be aware of the water in which they are swimming? How can we humans have a meta-awareness of the paradigms in which we exist and interact with others? We can do our best with self-supervision, but we cannot entirely avoid inhaling and exhaling from the cultures in which we live.

We professionals are a combination of our cultural programming and the deep, self-reflective work we have done to discard whatever of the mainstream culture is not consonant with our authentic selves. When our client takes a psychedelic, we are challenged to refrain from interfering with the transformational trajectory that the psychedelic has initiated.

The professional and the client approach the client’s psychedelic work when they are both still in an ordinary state of consciousness. The ordinary state holds embedded programming from the established assumptions we all learned in nuclear families, in school, at work, in religion, and with friends. These patterns are comprised of beliefs, habits, language, trends, and prejudices. These are “engendered,” so to speak, because of our identities (gender, sexual, ethnic, socio-economic, religious, racial, and others).

Women of color, for example, in addition to the prejudice they experience as females, experience racial prejudice. During one of his last speeches Martin Luther King, Jr. (1967) gave us an example of prejudice embedded in mainstream use of language, when he pointed out that at least half the thesaurus meanings for the word “black” were offensive and all meanings of the word “white” were favorable. A psychedelic therapist could unwittingly use language to allow a mainstream pattern to influence a client’s self-esteem or her own way of holding an important step in her transformative process. Monnica T. Williams (2018) names other factors which might exclude people of color altogether from access to psychedelics as legal medicine including, “prohibitive costs and lack of access to substances, negative stereotypes about people of color and drug use, and criminalization of people of color through the War on Drugs” (para. 3).

We make meaning for ourselves by seeing our reflection in the mirrors the cultural paradigm holds up for us. We do not always question the images in those mirrors. It is difficult to be a human in need of community and at the same time question everything in every sphere of life. But when the professional and the woman client draw near the moment when the woman will take the medicine, it is important for both to understand the need to protect her from the mainstream programming that remains in each of them and to provide permission for her to connect with and follow the guidance of her own inner wisdom.

Protection, Permission, and Connection is a concept that Dr. Ingrid Pacey, Mary-Louise Gould, and I originated for a teaching syllabus on trauma for the Grof Transpersonal Training. Each of us had worked for years, independently, using the Holotropic Breathwork® method of working in non-ordinary states with women healing from the childhood trauma of emotional, sexual, and physical abuse. The three of us realized that every successful treatment container has found a balance of Protection, Permission, and Connection, a balance that served the specific safety, encouragement, validation, and caring needs of the particular client. Protection, Permission, and Connection elements in right proportion result in trust and right relationship between professional and client so that the client can move freely towards authenticity (Taylor, 2017, pp. 58–60).

While Protection, Permission, and Connection applies to all clients in therapeutic settings, it is crucial for professionals to pay extra attention to balancing these three elements with women in psychedelic treatment. Too much protection, for example, may keep someone from venturing into new territory. Not enough protection may prevent a corrective, healing, or a transformative experience and possibly, instead, set up a client for a re-traumatizing experience or one that reinforces a limiting self-definition.

The InnerEthics model of ethics education described in my book The Ethics of Caring: Finding Right Relationship with Clients has a foundation of self-compassionate, ongoing self-reflection. When we are in continuous self-reflection about our desires, fears, and longings, we can understand better what is “ours.” Then we can do a better job supporting the client in discovering what is “theirs.”

I am a strong advocate of peer supervision: small groups of professionals who commit, in an on-going way, to willingness to explore ethical issues and their own fears and desires with trusted peers, calling on formal supervision when necessary. Today’s video conferencing makes it easy to form and nurture groups that establish a regular practice of self-discovery.

What ethical differences arise in working with psychedelics?

Ethical issues are quantitatively and qualitatively different with clients when using psychedelic medicine. I use “quantitative differences” to mean that the usual ethical issues need more attention in more ways when working with clients in non-ordinary states. In my decades working as a trainer and facilitator using the method of Holotropic Breathwork®, it became evident to me that there is increased need for physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual safety when working with clients with non-ordinary states. More information needs to be provided for informed consent, especially if a client has no prior experience in a non-ordinary state. There is potential for stronger transference and countertransference—projections that come from both the client and the professional. Clients in non-ordinary states, as in hypnosis, have increased vulnerability and are less defended against a professional’s suggestions, so there is a greater than usual necessity for caution in offering verbal direction (Taylor, pp. 159–176).

There are also qualitative differences in ethical issues that require professional knowledge and attention. For example, the requirements of set and setting differ. The definitions of ethical touch may be different. Cognitive dissonance, an internal clash of old and new understandings about self and world, occurs, sometimes abruptly, when a client discovers that her previous personal paradigm is too small. A different perspective of self, world, and the cartography of the psyche may be needed to hold what she is experiencing. Clients often need gentle assistance with re-entry back into an ordinary state of consciousness, a state which historically incorporated their old way of perceiving things, but one to which they are now bringing new awareness of how things are. Most importantly, the psychedelic professional must have garnered competencies from his or her own personal psychedelic and other deep experiential work.

What helps women clients in psychedelic work?

The principal protection that women need going into psychedelic treatment is non-interference—protection from the lingering mainstream paradigm that holds women as inferior in some way, role-defined, and role-limited. The psychedelic is the transformational ticket out of a limiting pattern for the female client. In any session the doors of the psyche may swing open. She may feel free to experience her authentic self, understand how roles have been defined for her. She may be ready to confront self-doubt. She may be able to see beyond externally and internally imposed limitations and find confidence in her unique gifts.

Leo Zeff, a psychologist and famous psychedelic therapist described his work in an interview with Myron Stolaroff (2004) which was published in The Secret Chief Revealed. Zeff gave psychedelic medicine to 3,000 people starting in the 1950s. He describes his own journey as a therapist, as he gained more experience with medicine work, moving from doing and interfering to trusting the innate healing force in the psyche which is liberated by the psychedelic medicine:

I very soon learned that my traditional techniques of helping people in therapy do not work, they just don’t work. Just leave ‘em alone! They know what the hell’s wrong with them or the God within them knows what’s wrong with them and provides them with whatever they need, which I don’t know anything about and they don’t even know anything about. (as cited in Stolaroff, 2004, p. 50)

What happens when you leave women alone (within, of course, a balanced container of Protection, Permission, and Connection they can trust) is that they source their inner wisdom, their inner healer, and find their own way to a place they self-define as “home,” where they recognize and empower their authentic selves.

Erica Avey reported on the 2018 Women and Psychedelics conference, presented by Chacruna Institute of Psychedelic Plant Medicine and held at CIIS in San Francisco. Avey quoted speaker Sara Reed, who told the group the story of her MDMA experience in a clinical research setting. Reed concluded, “I finally had a place where I belonged; I felt free.” Avey reported, “Those words hit the room. Most people were crying or on the verge of tears from her retelling.” Clearly, most of the women in that room related to Reed’s finally finding “a place where I belonged.” They had experienced and empathized with Reed’s journey of starting from a limited or incomplete identity to “coming home.”

Zoe Helene (2018), founder of Cosmic Sister, concurred that healing is part of what psychedelic therapy for women is about, but it is not the whole story. She wrote, “I really think self-liberation is a big one, especially for women” (para. 5).

As psychedelics are poised to become prescribed medicines, we would do well in psychedelic community to promote an ethos valuing self-reflection, particularly regarding the needs of women clients. Each of us who is holding space for psychedelic transformation must find right relationship with each person for whom we are in a responsible role. Community helps us with this. We can use both external and internal ethical guidelines. We can learn from self-examination and ethical mistakes. We can seek supervision and course-correct in a moment-by-moment way in every client relationship as it unfolds.

Only courageous soul-searching, especially in regular sessions of peer or facilitated supervision, can bring consciousness to the fears, desires, and spiritual longings hidden in each of us. Our willingness to face our unconscious programming, our vulnerabilities, and our hidden motivations will enable us to make choices that are truly in the best interests of our clients.

References

Avey, E. (November 20, 2018). The future of psychedelics is inclusive. Medium. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@ericaavey/notes-from-the-mycelium-6fa3b9a6f76f

Helene, Z. (October, 2018). The woman who says psychedelic medicine cured her ptsd. Retrieved from http://www.zoehelene.com/zoe-helene-psychedelic-feminism-the-woman-who-says-psychedelic-medicine-cured-her-ptsd

King, M.L., Jr. (August 16, 1967). Atlanta speech. In Black History Heroes Blog. Retrieved from http://www.blackhistoryheroes.com/2011/01/dr-martin-luther-king-jr-atlanta-speech.html.

Pollan, M. (2018). How to Change Your Mind. New York, NY: Penguin.

Stolarof, M. (2004). The Secret Chief Revealed. Charlotte, NC: MAPS.

Taylor, K. (2017). The Ethics of Caring: Finding Right Relationship with Clients. Santa Cruz, CA: Hanford Mead.

Williams, M. T. (August 24, 2018). Psychedelic psychotherapy is coming: Who will be included? Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/culturally-speaking/201808/psychedelic-psychotherapy-is-coming-who-will-be-included.

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Kylea Taylor, M.S., LMFT is grateful to MDMA for the biggest personal paradigm shift of her life. She is a Holotropic Breathwork® Facilitator, a Senior Trainer for the Grof Transpersonal Training and a SoulCollage® Trainer. She teaches InnerEthics and consults on ethical issues related to work in non-ordinary states of consciousness and community. She wroteThe Ethics of Caring: Finding Right Relationship with Clients, The Breathwork Experience, Considering Holotropic Breathwork®, and edited Exploring Holotropic Breathwork®She has a therapy practice in Santa Cruz, California, specializing in the integration of profound experiences into everyday life. She may be reached at KyleaTaylor.com.

InnerEthics

InnerEthics™

Ethical Right Relationship is at the heart of healing.

What Is InnerEthics™?

  • An inner, complementary approach to ethics education, to traditional, external codes, rules, laws and standards, to help us guide our ethical behavior
  • A model encouraging compassionate self-reflection on our own motivations
  • A set of concepts and practical tools that help us to know and support ourselves in right relationship
  • Professional development that also helps us in our ordinary lives with personal relationships

InnerEthics™ can also be taught by those who want to add this method to their existing methods of ethics education. A training program for teachers is in development. Contact Kylea Taylor if interested ????. See below. Consolidate?

Learn more about InnerEthics™